Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive neurological disease that can affect the central nervous system…
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Multiple Sclerosis, commonly known as MS, is a condition that causes your immune system to damage the myelin, a layer that gives protection to the nerves for a foreign body and attacks it.
When MS occurs, the parts of the nerve cells that conduct impulses to other cells, called Axons, don’t work as well.
In MS, the immune system attacks the protective sheath, known as myelin (the fatty substance that coats and protects nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord), that covers nerve fibers. It makes communication problem between the brain, spinal cord and the rest of your body. Eventually, the disease can disrupt the ability of parts of the nervous system to communicate, resulting in a range of signs and symptoms, including physical, mental, and sometimes psychiatric problems.
Its symptoms may differ greatly from person to person and over the course of the disease depending on the location of affected nerve fibers. It also depends on the amount of nerve damage and which nerves are affected. Specific symptoms can include :
- double vision
- muscle weakness
- balance and coordination problems
- problems with bowel and bladder function
- the problem in concentration and memory
- Pregnancy problems
- Painful involuntary muscle contractions
The exact cause of MS is still unknown, but it is thought to be an autoimmune disorder. Scientists believe the disease is triggered by an as-yet-unidentified environmental factor in a person who is genetically predisposed to respond. In a normal person, antibodies produced by the immune system that help to protect the body against viruses, bacteria, and other foreign substances. But, the people with M.S., the immune system destroys the substance that surrounds and protects the nerve cells; the myelin sheath. When myelin around the nerves is damaged then the nerves can’t function properly to deliver these signals in the right way.
Most of the people who suffered from MS have a normal life expectancy. The people who don’t get treatment may develop mobility dysfunction while the people with the severe progressive forms may develop complications like pneumonia.