Trigeminal Neuralgia || Cause, Symptom & Treatment

Trigeminal Neuralgia is a chronic pain that affects the trigeminal nerve …

Trigeminal Neuralgia ( TN or TGN ) also called Tic Douloureaux, is a chronic pain that cause by a nerve disorder of the face. It causes abrupt, searing facial pain, especially in your lower face and jaw pain and around your nose, ears, eyes, and lips.

It occurs due to nerve irritation or damage that affects the trigeminal nerve ( one of the most wide-reaching nerves in the head which carries sensation from your face to your brain).

In this disease, the intense pain can cause patients to contort their face into a grimace and cause the head to move away from the pain. According to a survey, this disease affects approximately 14,000 people in the United States (U.S.).

This disease can affects both gender ( male or female ). But it is more common in women and, is more likely after the age of 50 years.

Types of TGN  :

There are two main types of TGN :

  1. Typical TGN : It occurs due to the episodes of severe, sudden, shock-like pain in one side of your face which lasts for seconds to a few minutes. Sometimes it may occurs in few hours.
  2. Atypical TGN : It occurs due to constant burning pain i.e. less sever. Sometimes, it be triggers by any touch to the face.

Causes and Risk Factors Of TGN : 

The main cause of TGN is blood vessels pressing on the root of the trigeminal nerve. Some other causes and risk factors are :

Aging :

This disease can occur as a result of aging. In most cases, this disease affects the people who cross the age of 50 years.

Gender :

Women are most likely to affect with this disease.

Family history :

The formation of blood vessels is inherited. So, TGN may be an inherited disease.

Damage to nerve :

Physical damage to nerve  can affect your injury, a dental or surgical procedure, or infection.

Symptoms of TGN :

Symptoms of TGN are :

  • Mild pain occurs from a few seconds to several minutes.
  • Severe episodes of searing facial pain, especially in your lower face and jaw pain and around your nose, ears, eyes, and lips.
  • Pain occurs by touching your face, chewing, speaking, or brushing the teeth.
  • In some cases, pain or ache becomes constant.
  • Twitch of pain which last from few seconds to few minutes.
  • In this disease, pain focused in one spot or spread in a wider pattern.
  • Pain may occurs in one side or both sides of your face.
  • In man, the pain also occurs during saving.
  • The pain occurs during eating or drinking.
  • Pain occurs when you talk.

Home Remedies :

Some home remedies which helps to reduce your pain.

Use ice pack :

Cold pack on the jaw helps relieve muscle pain.

  • Take some ice cube.
  • Wrap it in a thin cloth.
  • Apply the ice pack to the affected area.
  • Leave it for 10 minutes.

Apply warm moist heat :

Apply warm moist heat to the side of your face may also help alleviate jaw pain.

  • Take a bowl.
  • Add warm water in it.
  • Take a cotton towel.
  • Soak the towel in warm water.
  • Wring out the excess water.
  • Apply this warm moist towel to your face.
  • Leave it for for 10 to 15 minutes.

Use salt water rinse :

Salt water is very effective in jaw pains. Its antiseptic and antibacterial properties helps to reduce inflammation and get reliaf in pain.

  •  Take a glass of  lukewarm water.
  • Add half teaspoon of salt in it.
  • Mix it well or until the salt dissolves completely.
  • Rinse your mouth with this water.

Diagnosis :

If the symptoms are found, then visit to your doctor. Your doctor will examine your face to determine the affected areas.

Your doctor may told you for a neurological and physical test.

The doctor may suggest you for a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan.

Treatments :

Medication :

It helps to relief from pain and reduce the number of attacks.

  1. Anti-seizure medications : A drugs that block nerve firing.
  2. Adjunctive medications : A muscle relaxants and tricyclic antidepressants.
Surgery :

Surgery can provide relief from TGN, but in rare case, its symptoms may return months or years later. It helps to –

  • Stop the vein or artery from pressing against the trigeminal nerve
  • Damage the trigeminal nerve so that the uncontrolled pain signals get rid off.
Nerve Injury :

Nerve injury also helpful in TGN disease.

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