Yellow Fever || Cause, Symptom, Diagnosis & Treatment

Yellow fever is a serious viral haemorrhagic disease, which is transmitted by infected female mosquitoes ( usually the Aedes aegypti mosquito).

Yellow fever is characterized by a high fever and jaundice.  In this disease, the skin and eyes becomes yellow in color, that’s why this disease is known as yellow fever.

Generally, its symptoms improve within a few days. In most of the cases, its symptom including high fever, feeling chill, headache and stress, muscle pain and nausea. Most of the patients have fever come and back, liver damage, pain occurs in abdomen. In this case, the risk of bleeding and kidney problems is increased.

The yellow fever is caused by ‘ yellow fever virus‘, that is spread when an infected female mosquito bites you. Generally, it infects primates like – human, monkey.

Causes :

Yellow fever is caused by a virus that is transmitted by a female Aedes aegypti mosquito.

It occurs when a mosquito bites a human or a monkey infected with yellow fever, the virus enters the mosquito’s bloodstream circulates before settling in the salivary glands. When this infected mosquito bites another primates, then virus enters to the host’s bloodstream, where it may cause illness.

The person who travels to an area where the yellow fever virus is present is at the risk of becoming infected.

Generally, it yellow occur in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America.

Symptoms :  

Generally, the symptoms of this disease begins after an incubation period of three to six days. The initial symptoms of this disease are similar to influenza virus. Like-

Acute Phase

Acute phase usually lasts for 3 to 4 days. Common symptoms are –

  • Muscle aches
  • Flushing
  • Headaches
  • Joint aches
  • Fever
  • Shivers
  • backaches

After this phase, mostly the symptoms go away. But in some cases, it develop a more serious version of this condition.

Toxic Phase :

In toxic phase, the symptoms will return, along with new and more serious symptoms. But, only 15 percent of the patients enters in this phase. Its symptoms are :

  • Decreased urination
  • Vomiting
  • Seizures
  • Abdominal pain
  • Bleeding from the nose, mouth, and eyes

Diagnosis & Treatment :  

Diagnosis :-

If any of the symptoms found, than visit a doctor. The doctor will ask you about the symptoms you have been experiencing and if you have traveled recently. If your doctor suspects that you have yellow fever, they will order a blood test.

  1. Blood tests (RT-PCR) can sometimes detect the virus in the early stages of the disease.
  2. In later stages of the disease, testing to identify there is need of antibodies (ELISA and PRNT).

Treatment :-

There is no any specific anti-viral drug to treat yellow fever. But specific care to treat dehydration, liver and kidney failure, and fever improves outcomes. Associated bacterial infections also helps to treat with antibiotics.

Prevention :  
Vaccination :-
  • Vaccine is the most effective way to treat this disease.  It contains a live, weakened version of the virus which helps to the body create immunity.
  • The person who want to travel in the area of this disease,  should find out about having the vaccine at least 10 to 14 days before departure.
  • A single vaccine dose provides you at least 10 years’protection.
Protection from mosquito :
  • Protecting yourself from mosquito are also an effective way to protect yourself from this disease.
  • Try to a avoid outdoor activities during dawn, dusk and early evening, when mosquitoes are most prevalent.
  • Cover your skin as much as possible.
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